Wednesday, January 27, 2021

The biggest threat to positive training is positive trainers.


"Positive training". When you first hear of it, you think it sounds lovely. After all, the trainers and behaviourists are all super kind to animals and pride themselves on being able to teach the animals long lasting and effective training, using methods that the animal actively enjoys, rewards, games and all the good stuff, with none of the bad stuff like ecollars, prongs, yanking on the lead, anti-pull equipment that stops the dog from being able to move freely and so on. Taking into account the differences between each case, the individuals likes and dislikes, and helping them to have a happy life. Exactly how it should be.

So you assume that all positive trainers are also lovely. WRONG. As much as it pains me to say it, positive trainers bitch and moan about each other constantly - not in any of the groups I run as we do not allow it, but with each other, and in other groups and gangs they hunt in packs. They troll and make nasty comments on social media, slagging off people left, right and centre. And then those same trainers all go and slag each other off somewhere else to someone else. They then create politics that Westminster would be proud of. All trying to outdo each other in Game of Bones style power play and underhandedness in the quest to be the most successful and "positive" gang.

The biggest bullies publicly pick off anyone they can, in their own quest to make themselves feel the most "positive" of all, helping to create the phenomenon known as "imposter syndrome". They then feed into already anxious people's worries, diminishing what is left of their confidence as much as they can. Rather than helping or guiding people along on their positive learning journey, these delightful folk are desperate not to be seen as "less than" and, like all bullies, feel elevated by picking on other people. These bullies feel anxiety, the same as anyone else, but they choose to express it in a way that emulates the fear culture in an online toxic playground environment.

What can then happen is we lose very good behaviourists and students. Nice, caring and sensitive people who want to train nicely, but either can't stand the pressure of being horribly picked on by their peers, or they go over to the "dark side" where the trainers might zap the dogs but at least they are nicer to each other. Rates of suicide are higher among care industries, including that of the animal care industries than pretty much any other. We should be supporting each other, not bringing each other down. It is a real shame.

Like Vegans can be their own worst enemies, the biggest threat to the positive training movement, is positive trainers.

So, what can we do about it?

Firstly, stop allowing bullying in groups and on pages - we can talk about methods but not name pages or trainers. It is unhelpful and unprofessional to slate each other like that and just leads to defensive posturing.

If you have a real issue with something someone says, report it to admin or privately message the person involved. There is no need to talk down to people and humiliate them publicly.

Teach kindly and learn kindly. Remember that there is always another human on the end of the laptop, and your throwaway comment might cost them their career or in some severe cases - their life.

You are the sum of what you surround yourself with - make full use of your block button. Don't remain in toxic groups, or bother trying to argue with trolls and bullies. It really isn't worth your time. Similarly, don't join in if you see it happening, as that will mean you are just as bad. 

Take time away from social media, and "work stuff", and spend time doing things that make you happy, with people who make you happy.

At the end of the day, we are all here because we wanted to help animals. Lets not tear each other down like bullies in a playground. No animal ever was helped by their trainer not being at their best or being forced to quit because of other trainers. Lets build each other up instead. It's really not that hard to just be nice to each other. After all, we can do it for animals - so why not each other?

Play nicely, and stay safe xx

Saturday, December 19, 2020

Ho - Ho - Ho... Merry Christmas?


Well, it's that time again. The season of goodwill to all men, of Santa Claus and baby Jesus and endless Red, Gold and Green stuff.

Even with covid-19 being a guest at too many tables, everyone is busy planning how they are going to see people, zoom people, drive by people's houses to drop presents off wearing festive masks and holding hand gel. Kids faces are getting that expectant glow, and parents excitedly buy sprouts and tinsel and bags of chocolate reindeer poo.

A time of great joy, magic and wonder, right?

Well... erm… not always.

For people who struggle with anxiety, this time of year is a minefield of potential things to worry about. 

From money struggles, to fears around covid-19, to wondering if your presents were going to be well received, to the sheer horror that can surround being forced into social situations at work or even within our own friends and family circles, and so many more things that come up at those time - memories and loneliness, all the noise and pressure. It can be a lot to deal with.

You feel like you should be enjoying Christmas, like all the other people do - but the truth is that not everyone does enjoy Christmas. Or, some people prefer their Christmas a little more quiet and reserved.

If this is how you feel, then that is ok. You are not alone in feeling like that. There are many, many people who struggle at this time of year and it is important to remember that if you don't take care of yourself and what you need first, then you can't take care of, or be fully present with anyone else - including your well meaning friends and family.

Take time out to have rest breaks from it all. Schedule in "days off", and allow time for dog walks etc on days where you might feel expected to be super social. Nobody can blame you for taking a couple of hours out to go and attend to your dog. Have bubble baths and take a bit longer in them. Light candles. Colour in mandalas. Do whatever it takes to give yourself a little physical and mental space regularly through it all.

Eat and sleep as well as you can, we all enjoy Christmas sweeties but be sure to get some healthy stuff in too, and avoid a shed load of alcohol which will only make you feel more anxious over the days that follow a session. You don't have to be the life and soul of the party, and by giving yourself adequate care you will cope better.

If you are the other way and find yourself feeling lonely over Christmas, which many people with anxiety often do, then that is not uncommon either. An anxious person feels a lack of company, even though that company might make them feel anxious - it is catch 22 and is compounded at Christmas when we are surrounded by images of families unwrapping presents together and we notice our lives do not look like that.

All in all Christmas can be a wonderful time, but it can also be a bit of a struggle, and I want you to know that if you need to reach out, then you can send us a message. We may be closed for dog training over the festive period but we are not unavailable for those who might need us. 

Stay safe and have a peaceful festive season.

Sunday, November 15, 2020

Fun Not Fear®️ Complete Dog Care Course

Wow - isn't it amazing how necessity drives invention? 

We have accidentally discovered a niche and our new passion at Locke's Dogs.

Our new Fun Not Fear®️ Complete Dog Care Course.

The amount of time I have spent inside the home this year, coupled with my own experiences of my own and other's anxiety and social anxiety, has led me to re-examination of how I teach dog training and dog-life skills to an entire gang of people!

I have seen how hard it can be to look after your pets, mainly dogs admittedly, in my line of work, but other pets too, when social anxiety is a factor. So, I have made something a bit special just for you!

I have gotten together with people who are amazing in their fields to help me teach you better, in ways that are tailored to suit your needs. I decided to approach people who know more than I do, in certain areas of dog care, so that I can be certain you are getting the best advice from the best people! 

Every specialist I include on the course is also a force-free and positive method user, so you can guarantee that everything we do will be kind and enjoyable for your dog. At Locke's Dogs we use Fun Not Fear®️ methods with our dogs (and our humans!!!!) and so we will never use shocks, prongs, collar pops, shouting or any other harsh and unnecessary equipment. Modern training is much kinder and more fun than that, you will love it and so will your dog!

Every person studying the course will also be able to relate to the other people studying the course as they will have similar life experiences, struggles and successes, so it will be easier to find new friends among the group too.

With a pile of resources to make your life easier, advice and support, we know we can make a huge difference to your daily life with your dog.

I am so, so, so excited and this is just the beginning - the beauty of realising a special area of interest is that it can only get better and better as I gain more knowledge and experience of that particular area.

I love, love, love being able to use my platform to make a real difference to people and their dogs. 

Monday, October 19, 2020

Why I don't use punishment or aversives in training.

One of the many things that people will read about when looking for a trainer or behaviourist is what method of training the dog trainer will use. Most modern trainers are taught to use "positive" or "reward based" methods. Some trainers will use "balanced" methods which utilise punishment and aversives, while others are completely punishment based. Thankfully the completely punishment based are very few and far between, the balanced are a dying breed, and positive is the way forward.

"What the fuck are you on about?" I hear you ask. Well here goes.

For many years, people were taught that dogs need to be shown "who is boss", "who is dominant in  the pack" and that their dog should be "submissive" to their human. These ideas were based on a flawed study involving captive, unrelated wolves and their behaviour around each other and resources such as food, mates and so on. A bit like "Big Brother" on tv, but with wolves. 

These wolves did not know each other from Adam, and being confined only had access to limited resources as they were unable to move out from the area and go hunting and seeking the things they wanted. So they fought over the things that were available to them. Naturally, the bigger, healthier and stronger wolves were able to be more competitive than their smaller counterparts and received a bigger share of the resources. So, the humans decided that these wolves were dominant and "Alpha", and this is how a pack would behave, and so to make the dogs act like the seemingly "lower ranking" wolves who were less aggressive, we must bully them into being submissive. 

The trouble is, wolves do not behave like that in a natural setting. They are more like a family, with mum and dad, taking care of the rest of the family, older siblings that can go off and start their own families and they rarely fight over resources at all. The pecking order as to who gets fed first varies from day to day, and the wolves jobs within the pack is also fluid. Then there is the fact that although they have a common ancestor, dogs and wolves are two entirely different species. One evolved to stay away from humans, the other to hang around with us instead, and their brains think and react differently as a result.

So the study of how wolves behave was wrong. The scientists who observed these wolves then spent a bloody long time trying to tell the world of their mistake, but by this point the damage was done. Trainers in village halls, and TV trainers were telling people to yank their dogs with prong collars, zap them with shock collars, do "alpha rolls" which involve pinning the dog to the floor until they stop wriggling, biting the dog's ear and so on, and because the dogs were afraid, for a temporary period the treatment works. Punishment, by definition, means to reduce a behaviour. Punishment must work, or it would not be punishment.

However... with using punishment in training there are flaws. Not just that it is not very nice to zap, bite, hit or yell at your "best friend" while you try to get them to "submit" to you - to me that sounds like domestic violence, and if a human did that to another human, it would be viewed incredibly dimly by other humans and the law, but also, when the unwanted behaviour stops, so does the punishment. 

Which means training has stopped. If a dog has practiced something, they have gotten good at it, even if that thing is an unwanted behaviour. Now, the dog has probably reached a level of tolerance to the punishment, has stopped being trained not to do the unwanted behaviour, and so the unwanted behaviour can creep back in and need a harsher level of punishment before the behaviour stops again.

Punishment does not tell the one whose behaviour is being punished what you DO want instead. Try asking your partner to do the washing up, by saying nothing but "no" from the moment you see them, until they get right what you want them to do. Now just simply say "it would be really nice if you could wash up, please" and see how much quicker they understand.

Think of the dog who has been told "no" countless times when it comes to chasing the cat. The dog, might stop chasing the cat if told off, often enough. But he loves chasing the cat, plus he is also getting used to being told off, so when he goes to chase the cat and being told off no longer cuts it, what next? Should he be shouted at more harshly? That might work quickly at first, but when that stops working, what next? Hit? What when that stops working? Kicked? Zapped with a shock collar? The punishment is spiralling and even though there are interludes of the dog deciding to behave appropriately and not chase the cat, eventually the chase of the cat becomes more valuable to him than the fear of the punishment, especially if the behaviour has not been punished for a while so the dog is less bothered by it, and so the cycle begins again. He may even begin to blame the cat for the bad thing that happens to him and then you have a whole new set of problems. 

Now imagine, if instead of chasing the cat, the dog was firstly managed with stair gates, or a long line, so he could not actually physically get to the cat (after all - positive does NOT mean just let the dog do as he pleases). The dog could be taught calmness in his daily life so as to not be so aroused to feel the need to chase so often. The dog could be taught to disengage from the cat. The dog who is really, really, reeeeaaaally adamant on chasing the cat as he has a really strong prey drive and can't help himself could be rewarded for doing something else still - he might very well enjoy a chaser tuggy (a fluffy toy on a rope for tugging and chasing) or a flirt pole (like a cat's toy on a string but much bigger and the string is attached to a horse lunging whip so he can run around very fast, chasing it) for example, and so they can indulge their desire to chase and catch something fluffy or squeaky, and actually be rewarded for doing so. If the reward is reinforcing enough, the dog's behaviour will change.

By practicing behaviour in an appropriate manner, the dog is getting good at an appropriate behaviour and both human and dog are winning - and as a bonus no cats are eaten in the process. The better the dog behaves, the more they get rewarded. In the meantime, management means he is not practicing chasing the cat and so that behaviour is becoming slowly extinct. Training continues for the dog, with every praise. How much better is that for the dog and human relationship? How much nicer and fairer is that for the dog? After all - it is us who want the dog to behave in a certain way. The dog couldn't give a fuck. He just wants to chase something. So it is up to us to make it worth his while.

Positive training has never been about letting the dog do as they please, or being soft, despite popular thinking - if anything it takes a bigger skill set than punishment, as the trainer has to work out how to lead the dog forward in an appropriate way that works. They need to work out what makes that dog tick, what reinforces his behaviours. A good trainer with good knowledge and a good skill set will be able to do this - if you need help with your own dog, ask a qualified professional (like me ;-) ). In truth it might take a little longer at first than simply zapping, yanking or yelling at the dog each time they do something you do not like, though with adequate management most behaviours can be instantly stopped. 

The effects of positive training are much, much longer lasting than punishment and mean relationship building, and help to teach your dog that the world is a good place, you are a good person, how to behave appropriately and be happy about doing so - and is that not what we want for our best friends?

Friday, September 11, 2020

Change the energy, change the behaviour.

We often talk about stress buckets (arousal thresholds) and emptying them while doing our consults and training, trying to remove sources of stress by management or by desensitisation and counter conditioning, but sometimes a place can be just as much of a bucket filler as any physical trigger. Just the thought of going to certain places can mean your dog's bucket is overflowing before you even leave the house, and dogs often can't behave in ways we deem appropriate when they are way over their threshold or their bucket is full.

Behaviour can be very strongly influenced by mere habit  and what you practice, you get good at. If you are always finding your dog is too highly aroused to think straight in a certain place, you should think about changing the associations your dog has with that place. 

This is more simple than you would think.

A building generally has walls, a roof, and a floor, as a bare minimum. The building might be a disco, or it might be a phone shop, or a library, 
or anything else. But before it is all of those things, it is just a building. 

The things that change it from a building into a disco, or a library, are the energy, equipment and routines  you put into the building. The dancing you do to the pounding speakers blasting away the latest "choons", or the reading quietly in the comfy armchairs by the windows. The things that you practice doing determine the overall "feel" of the place, and so when you next come to that disco you are more likely to dance, because that is what you do at discos. When you go to a library, you are much less likely to dance, but more likely to be calm and in the mood to be sensible and read. Why? Because that is what you do in libraries.

The building doesn't change. It is still a building. The place you go with your dog doesn't change. It is still a place you like to take your dog. However, the idea and routine of what you get up to in the building can change. 

The behaviour your dog exhibits in that highly arousing place can change. They just need to learn a new way of being in that place. A new way of feeling that "this is what we do here".

Think of all those discos that shut down (probably sometime back in the 80's when people still said "disco") and are now phone shops. Do people dance in phone shops? Not very often. They need to concentrate on what the latest gadget does before they spend lots of money on it. This is possible because they now have a new associative behaviour in that building.

So if you want your dog to be better able to think in some situations, you need to be turning exciting places - discos - into calm places like libraries or phone shops. 

How? By changing the energy. By replacing high arousal activities with calmer ones and then practicing the new way of being in that place. HINT - You might need to swap high arousal for mid-arousal activities at first, before swapping down to low arousal activities, so your dog is better able to process the changes going on in his environment.

So for example, take a dog that goes crazy for the ball slinger, and is hopping about like a bunny rabbit, mad with excitement, rushing out the door, barking and being an absolute oik every time you get to the park... But you have just learned that the repetitive running back and forth is not very good for the dog, and you would much rather be able to go for a "nice" walk, but now the dog can no longer seem to go within 20 miles of the park without turning into the Tasmanian bloody Devil... 

You might want/need to wind their energy levels down gradually over a few visits at the park, from using the ball slinger less and to throwing the ball manually instead. Then after a few sessions start to only throw the ball a few times and begin to play a few concept training games once they are in a headspace where they can concentrate. Then after a few more sessions, wind down further to a few concept training games plus perhaps calmly scatterfeeding their tea and allowing them a long sniffy meander through the undergrowth finding it all.  

The dog will not feel like they are missing out, after all they get to play games and have a sniffy picnic at their favourite place, however they are no longer hyped up to the point they are unable to think straight or performing an action that could see them get an injury. You and they can have the walk of your dreams, or at least begin to work on the pulling, barking and your recall, with a dog who is more able to be receptive to your teaching. 

You have turned the disco into a library. Albeit a slightly more lively than average library. With kibble in the pot plants. But a library where learning can take place nonetheless. 
 Remember - always choose Fun Not Fear®

Wednesday, September 2, 2020

A new normal.


In the while since I last wrote a blog, a heckin lot has happened. I am knackered! I am writing this from my phone as I can't reach my laptop, and I have no desire to get up and get it. So apologies if there are any autocorrect spelling disasters. I am sure I will edit it later.

Mostly, the lot that has happened over the last few months has been lockdown and COVID-19 related. You would think that the almost the whole country shutting shop for a few months would mean we all had nothing to do, but that couldn't be further from the truth.

Firstly I found myself being a teacher to a sixth form student, who found himself being taught his A-Levels remotely. This was pretty new as we didn't even have Internet when I was at school. I say "new", I had previously homeschooled my eldest for a while but we were able to pick and choose what she would be learning and it certainly wasn't A-Level Criminology or Politics. Plus there was the fact she wanted to learn, he would much prefer to play Xbox. So that was nice.

I found myself decorating a teenage boy's bedroom, which was an experience in itself and one that will haunt me forever.

I found myself having to completely remake the website for my non-profit over the course of just a few weeks, after the providers gave up providing, and that was a lovely surprise that saw me working until 3am for many a night. if you fancy a look.

I also worked out how to use acuity schedule software. And put it on my website. And linked it to Facebook. And to Zoom. And to Google Calendar. I actually could be Bill Gates as I am so bloody good at computers now. The things you never knew you needed to know, when you learn to train dogs is endless.

Then there is the seemingly foregone conclusion that I am now the only person who needs to leave the house "cos social distancing"... so I am now officially the house representative in all things that involve getting dressed and going out of the door. Which includes shopping, bill paying, gardening, dog walking, and anything else that involves daylight touching skin. Though the oiks have visited the relatives a few times once lockdown was eased up, I will give them that. Nan turned 99 and my Dad had a Barbeque. My poor mum had a big birthday but was unable to celebrate it properly because we were all still in lockdown at the time. I am so grateful to have everyone I love still around me, as many I know do not have that luxury.

And then dog - work went mad. Every person in the whole world except for me bought a puppy. Puppies need training. Dogs whose humans are home 24/7 seem to develop a reliance on their human continuing to be around 24/7 and were in for an unpleasant surprise when their humans went back to work. Dogs who had previously snoozed their days away were now no longer getting any sleep. Dogs whose humans suddenly developed a passion for jogging and twatting about with fitbits were suddenly being dragged into doing "Dog Bed to 5k" whether their hips could stand it or not. The park was off limits too. 

Everyone was spending longer on the Internet and so my social media pages went crazy too.

I rewrote my training course, made videos for it, and trademarked it too.

The reactive dogs thought social distancing was brilliant as people all gave them 2 meters space, and all the other dogs were on leads. Some didn't have to go for walks at all. Now it's almost back to normal. The dogs are all back to barking at each other and the humans are noticing the behaviour change after they had made so much progress. If only they could all just carry on keeping a bit back from people and dogs, like we behaviourists have often been trying to get them to do for years, while they keep up their desensitisation programs,  so much more would be right with the world. 

The dogs also didn't need to actually meet the behaviourist before starting their behaviour modification programmes, as we all learned how to Zoom with our clients bloody sharpish. Not having the initial hour or six of building up trust with the dog first means the clients can launch straight into their training and the dog is in a better headspace to start learning. Of course there are so many ways in which an in person consultation is beneficial, not least the way it is so much easier to become immersed in the client's world and to show them first hand the things you want them to see. But, being able to teach remotely is a skill well worth having in the arsenal when it comes to anxious dogs, as they can begin to build their confidence, before ever being subjected to a stranger with a bumbag of treats and a clipboard sitting on their sofa.

I have stopped walking Moo daily now, as the break from walking we had at the start of lockdown did him the world of good, and he chilled right out. We now go four or five times a week and I let him walk to wherever he wants to go, sniffing and snooting about. We both really enjoy it much more than before. I also have been using him as a demo dog for zoom consults and so his basic training (and treat pot) has been getting topped up nicely too.

My youngest is back at college next week and I am actually dreading it. Normality is no longer normal. The past few months have been a blur, but at least me and my little family have all been together through it. I will be really worried about it every time he sniffles or forgets his mask for ages, but I guess that is the world we will be living in for a while now. I was very afraid of leaving the house at all a few months back, but now I am used to masking and handwashing every 20 minutes and it feels less threatening. I have even stopped subconsciously holding my breath when I walk past people in the supermarket and then wondering why I feel giddy halfway round. We will get used to it.

The decision to live a pyjama based lifestyle for a few months, ultimately has become a lifestyle that I don't want to give up too quickly. The comfort of working from home is a lesson I have found very valuable indeed. I am just getting into the swing of not trying to work 24/7 at my laptop (hence it is switched off as I write this) and find balance between my caring responsibilities, my work life, and drinking coffee and eating snacks. 

I am loving being able to work with my clients again, to see the dogs and to see with my own eyes, the plans I make with their humans coming to fruition. This is something I will never take for granted again. However now I feel better equipped to work in a virtual, and online environment as well as in person. So, in many ways the whole lockdown and COVID-19 disaster has been a time of growth and of learning for me. I have been able to take my kids, my dog, my business and embrace a whole new way of doing things with all of them.

Hoping you have stayed safe and well xx

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

Is your dog loving lockdown?

How is lockdown and social distancing going for your dog?
Did you secretly breathe a sigh of relief when you realised that lockdown might mean not walking the dog as much or in the usual places? Or that people might avoid you and give you space BEFORE you have to ask for it?
You can still walk your dog, and good on you for sticking to your routines if that is what works for you - great!! Carry on and enjoy the exercise  (Just don't forget to wash your hands when you get in xx)
But lots of people are opting not to. Or not to walk every day perhaps, or for not as long.
Social distancing means that people are now crossing the road when they see someone coming, and walking around them in a big arch - or nipping down alleys etc to avoid getting too close.
It also means people are not walking their dogs every day, some (like me) are not even walking the dog at all - Moo has been out once for a walk since the day the lockdown started.
This lock down is having some unexpected benefits for some of our dogs. 
Moo, though no longer particularly reactive, seems to be so much calmer. He definitely eats more. Plays more. Trains & learns faster. He seems to rarely bark at all any more. Sleeps like a log. No longer feels the need to guard the front of the house, and has decided the Thursday clap is a massive reward for him, and so people going past the house no longer seem to bother him either as they are now all his clappers - I taught him to associate clapping with reward from an early age as food was not always such a good choice for him (being allergic and intolerant and all). The postman is still cheeky enough to venture up the path, but in all honesty, most days these days, we are still in bed enjoying a lay in when the postie sneaks up to burgle us, and Moo only worries about burglars when we are up and out of our pits, as he is as lazy as the rest of the family when it comes to a nice lay in.
Now, how many times have I asked people with reactive dogs to empty their buckets by having days off from walking and do other stuff instead - enrichment and games? It's one of my go-to starting points for many a consultation. Getting that bucket emptied. Now buckets are emptying faster than you can say "Dear Liza". Starting from a good place mentally helps learning accelerate and behaviour problems melt away so much faster.
I also tell people to map their walking routes so there is always a road to cross to be able to create distance, or alleys to nip down. Walking along, straight towards another dog can be very threatening and intimidating to both dogs, but walking around them by crossing the road, or going around a parked car etc is so much less so. Now almost EVERYBODY is avoiding you - dog or no dog. It is great. Strangers are not stopping to pet your dog either, which helps immensely with desensitisation, when you have a very cute one that hates people.
I don't tend to encourage dogs meeting each other on lead very much at all, and three seconds is long enough for an initial sniff to suss each other out. Not all dogs want to be met! With the lockdown and social distancing, the dogs can avoid this pressure too.
I train an A2B/U-turn motion so to be able to get away without yanking on the lead. This is something people have been practicing both as an enrichment task in the garden but also while gently leading their dogs out of the path of oncoming joggers, dog walkers, cyclists and so on. Leash skills make a lot of difference as if a dog expects to be yanked away as soon as he sees a trigger, that trigger becomes even more of a thing to be concerned about.
The humans, well they are just glad to be out of the house, and so are not marching the dog around their route at the speed of light so they can get home in time for Eastenders. Nope - instead they are ambling along and letting the dogs sniff and snoot about. Much nicer for the dogs. Steering clear of the benches and touchy things, and taking the time to look at the blossom on the trees or feeling the sunshine on their faces instead, accidentally practicing a spot of mindfulness as they go. 
The reactive dogs are seeming to get much calmer and relaxing as a result of doing all of this. So are their humans!
🐾 So perhaps keep it up after lockdown ends? 🐾